Native to North America, and found from Texas north to Missouri, and in nearly all states east of the Mississippi River.
A perennial weed that reproduces from seeds. Plants have narrow leaves that look very much like grasses and are easily overlooked in turf when no flowers are present. Found most often in moist soils, and found along roadsides and in pastures, and a potentially serious pest in turf. Plants are clump-forming and will crowd out the turf around them.
Mature plants in unmowed areas can grow to over 20 inches tall, with extensive and spreading stems and leaves and many flowers. There is a tough, fibrous root system that resists pulling. Leaves are long and narrow, and stems are taller than the leaves, terminating with 2 to 3 flower stalks and the bright blue flowers. These have 6 showy petals that are oblong and notched at their tips, with a thin, pointed extension arising from that notch. The bases of the petals are joined to form a short tube and are yellow in the throat of the tube.
Characteristicts Important to Control:
Physical removal is effective but may be difficult due to the strong root system and potentially extensive infestations of these weeds in turf. When not in turf they can be killed with a contact or systemic herbicide, and in turf will require either spot treating or the use of a selective product.