A native of Europe, now widespread in the United States.
A winter annual or sometimes a biennial. This weed is common in most kinds of cultivated crops and orchards, fields and pastures, as well as roadsides and waste areas.
Propagation is from seeds that germinate in cool weather, including fall or spring. Seeds are hardy, and may persist in the soil for years.
Mature plants grow as tall as 4 feet, with large taproots that resemble a turnip. Stems and foliage are generally smooth, rather than prickly as with many other mustards.
Lower leaves can be up to 12 inches long, with a large terminal lobe and smaller side lobes. Upper leaves are alternate on the stems, have a pointed tip and no lobes, and surround the stem in a clasping appearance.
Flower clusters open at the ends of the stems, leaving the developing seed pods below on long stems. Seed pods are hairless and may be up to 3 inches long. Flowers are yellow.
Characteristicts Important to Control:
Usually an annual reproducing by seed, and germinating in fall or spring.