Native to North America, and found throughout much of the continent, from Alaska to the east and west coasts.
Perennial ferns, reproducing from spores or from their woody rhizomes.
Common in wooded areas or along roadsides, particularly where the soil is slightly acidic. It is not an aggressive weed problem, but does have the potential to be toxic to livestock when eaten. The toxicity is low but cumulative in the animals.
Fronds are leathery, and the western variety is densely hairy on the underside while the eastern variety tends not to have the hairs.
New fronds open in a fiddleneck appearance in the spring.
This group is distinguished from other ferns by the fact that there are no scales on the rhizomes. Other kinds of ferns have scales and hairs present.
Characteristicts Important to Control:
A perennial reproducing by rhizomes.