Normally residents of outdoor habitats these mice also commonly invade structures, particularly in cold weather and at times when human residents are not present. This association with humans brings them close enough that their parasites and their waste excretions are contacted by humans, initiating the potential for transmission of the associated diseases. These mice breed rapidly, with 3 to 4 litters per year and up to 6 young per litter, and most of the breeding is done in the spring. Peromyscus species generally live no more than 2 years in a natural setting. They are nocturnal, and nests are built in many types of hidden places, such as shallow ground burrows, under logs, in hollow stumps, or in hidden places in and around structures.
In outdoor habitats the white-footed and deer mice are not major problems, except for their potential as disease vectors and reservoirs. Control measures usually are centered around exclusion from structures and would be similar to those for the House Mouse – sealing of entry points greater than a quarter inch in diameter, ensuring vent openings are screened, and reduction of food and harborage around the structure.