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Pest Information

Flickers

  • Latin Name: Colaptes sp.
  • Common Name: Flickers
  • Other Names: Northern flicker, Yellow-shafted flicker and over 100 other common names.

Pest Details

Origin:

This is a native bird in North America. They are a migratory bird that occurs from Alaska to southern Mexico and throughout the entire U.S. and most of Canada. In the northern regions, including Alaska and Canada, they are present only during the summer months, migrating south to the U.S. or Mexico for the winters.

Biology:

The Northern Flicker is just one of several North American species of flickers, but it is by far the most common and widespread. Despite their name they are a species of woodpecker. They are seen frequently in wooded areas where much of their feeding is on the ground. While they will eat some fruit, seeds, and sap from trees their primary food is insects, particularly ants that may make up 45% of their diet. Mating occurs in the spring and a clutch of 6-8 eggs is laid. Nests are most often created as cavities in wood, but they may take advantage of existing cavities such as bird houses. Hatchlings are mature enough to leave the nest in about 1 month. Damage to structures is possible and usually occurs during mating season in the spring. Holes may be drilled into wood to store acorns or to create a cavity for nesting. Further annoyance comes from “drumming”, a woodpecker’s method for communication, and is most common in the spring when associated with mating activities. Drumming is done by a rapid series of pecks on a surface that will create a loud sound, and metal surfaces such as rain gutters, chimney caps, metal flashing and others are often chosen for their loud resonance. Utility poles are often selected as sites for storing food or for nesting and serious damage can occur over time.

Identification:

This is one of the largest and most distinctive woodpeckers, reaching a length of about 14 inches and a wingspan of nearly 2 feet. The overall color of the feathers is light gray with heavy black spotting on the sides and belly. The wings are more of a brown color with heavy black bands running across them. The tail feathers are dark on top. Both males and females have a wide black patch on the middle of the chest and the male also has a red or black stripe extending along the side of the head, beginning at the beak. Their flight is an undulating manner in which several wing beats are interrupted by a sudden drop as they fold their wings against the body, and then several wing beats to raise them up again.

Characteristicts Important to Control:

Woodpeckers are classified as migratory, non-game animals by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and often further protected under state or provincial laws. They cannot be harmed without specific permission from regulatory and wildlife agencies and only then with good reason for doing so. For long term management exclusion is the preferred option, installing physical materials that prevent the birds from accessing favored sites for nesting or drumming. This includes the use of bird netting under the eaves of structures or sloped plastic or metal barriers that prevent the birds from landing and gripping the side of the structure. The birds prefer to drill in wood that is not painted or covered with a finish, and surface coatings may help to discourage them. Various kinds of fright devices may have a temporary effect to scare birds away, but the birds typically become accustomed to the devices and ignore them. Repellents, according to University resources, will be generally ineffective. Sticky repellents can be applied to valuable trees or to wood surfaces if they are not going to cause any other negative effects.

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