Favored foods are fresh foliage and flowers in the warm months, seeds and grains in cold months, or even the bark of young plants and trees in the winter. Voles may be very destructive to grain and vegetable crops. Nesting is done is burrows in shallow soil or in thick grass and vegetation, and distinct runways are created above ground as the mice travel and forage. Breeding can be done year round, with the highest activity from March until November, and mating takes place immediately following the birth of a litter. There is an average of around 6 young per litter, and the potential exists for a breeding pair beginning in the spring to result in almost 3000 mice by the fall. There can be up to 10 litters per year, and population explosions result about every 4 years.
Bait placements should be made as close to burrows as possible, but scattering of granular baits where legal and appropriate may be effective, and bait placements within tamper-resistant stations in landscape areas is preferred. Trapping may be done by setting traps in runways. Fumigation with burrow fumigants is not normally an effective option due to the nature of the shallow burrows, or nests only in vegetation.